I've taken two goats with a .280 Remington using handloads and the 160 - grain Nosler Partition bullet, a combination that, together with rounds like the .30 - 06 and various 7mm magnums, I believe is the bare minimum. One of the .300 magnums is better still, and I have friends who wouldn't dream of hunting goats without their .338s. Use only premium quality bullets designed for maximum penetration, even when bone has been struck.
Goat rifles should be equipped with completely waterproof, fogproof scopes in the 2.5 - 8X, 3 - 9X, or 2.5 - 10X class, that can take the bumping, banging, soaking and freezing they will invariably need to endure. A quality rainproof scope cover is essential.
Bowhunters are pursuing mountain goats more often these days, something I love to do. A couple years ago I shot a billy that officially scores 486 ¼ 8 Pope & Young points - which would place it in the top 20 ever taken with a bow - with a Mathews Z - Max single - cam bow set at 74 pounds, Beman ICS Hunter 400 carbon arrow, Barrie Archery Ti - 125 broadhead and a rugged Sonoran Bowhunting Products pin - type bow sight.
Your standard deer hunting setup is plenty of bow. Use an extra - sturdy broadhead that can slice through a billy's thick hair and massive muscles.
Carrying a laser range finder makes lots of sense. Be prepared to shoot at a steep downhill angle.
Mountain hunting is an optics - driven game. You need high quality binoculars of at least 8X, with 10X better. A spotting scope with a top - end power of 45 to 60X is essential. Be sure to bring a sturdy tripod.
The right clothing is essential to both your comfort and safety in goat country. Dress in layers, starting with a synthetic wicking layer followed up with layers of fleece or wool. I prefer Gore - Tex and Windstopper fleece products, which are super lightweight and block 100 percent of the cold mountain winds. A packable Whitewater Outdoors Gore - Tex rain suit is always with me, as are a warm hat and gloves. A pair of rugged Gore - Tex boots with an aggressive sole (I like the airbob design best) are essential too.